Thursday, 27 March 2014

2014 N&N Symposium: Final Program

Not content with bringing you the CfP for the January 2015 issue of the journal, we have also finalised the program for next week's symposium: Networks and Neighbours II, Curitiba, Brazil. Abstracts for all the papers are also included.





Thursday, 3 April
9:30-10:30 Coffee and Registration at ‘Homero de Barros’ Room

10:30-10:45 Opening Remarks by Otávio Luiz Vieira Pinto and Richard Broome

10:45-12:45 Panel 1: Methods of Capital
Moderator: André Szczawlinska Muceniecks, Universidade de São Paulo, Brazil
Tommaso Leso, Università ‘Ca’ Foscari’ Venezia, Italy
Neighbourhood, Marriage, and Political Strategies: Franco-Visigothic Royal Marriages in the Sixth Century
Paulo Pachá, UFF/NIEP-PréK, Brazil
Gift and Conflict: Modes of Domination in the Iberian Early Middle Ages
Janira Feliciano Pohlmann, Universidade Federal do Paraná, Brazil
A Family’s Identity In De excessu fratris I, of Ambrose, Bishop of Milan

12:45-1:45 Lunch

1:45-3:45 Panel 2: Structures of Authority: From Text to Temple
Moderator: Alfonso Hernández, CONICET, Argentina
Jonathan Perl Garrido, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso and Universidad de Santiago de Chile, Chile
The Others’ in the Continuations of Fredegar’s Chronicle: Memory, Historiography and the Legitimation of Carolingian Power in the Mid-Eighth Century
Renan Marques Birro, Universidade Federal do Amapá and Universidade de São Paulo, Brazil
The Topography of Power in Medieval Norway: Saint Óláfr and the Halls of Norwegian Kings
Danilo Medeiros Gazzotti, Universidade Federal do Paraná, Brazil
The Royal Power of Suebi in the Diocésis Hispaniarum: Some Interpretations About Hydatius’s Chronicle

3:45-4:15 Coffee

4:15-6:15 Keynote Seminar 1
Moderator: Ralph Mathisen, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, USA
Ian Wood, University of Leeds, UK
National Arguments over the Fall of Rome

7:15 Dinner at Café Mafalda

Friday, 4 April

10:30-10:45 Coffee

10:45-12:45 Panel 3: Matters of Eloquence: Writing in the Early Middle Ages
Moderator: N. Kıvılcım Yavuz, University of Leeds, UK
Selene Candian dos Santos, Universidade de São Paulo, Brazil
The Reception and Recasting of Classical Rhetoric in the Early Middle Ages
Monah Nascimento Pereira, Universidade Federal do Paraná, Brazil
King Alfred’s Translation Works: Discussing Authorship and Royal Practice in Anglo-Saxon England
Rodrigo Rainha, Universidade Estácio de Sá, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Reflections About Public and Private on Medieval Letters: A Case Study of Power Relations in a Visigoth Epistolary

12:45-1:45 Lunch

1:45-3:45 Panel 4: Hints of the Bible
Moderator: Paulo Duarte, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Gesner Las Casas Brito Filho, Universidade de São Paulo, Brazil
Word Hoard and Image Hoard: Codicological Notes on Writings Between the Images in MS Junius 11 (Bodleian Library, Oxford)
Philipp Dörler, Universität Wien, Austria
The Conversus and the Bible. Biblical Allusions in Jordanes’s Works
Vinicius Cesar Dreger de Araujo, Unicsul/Anhanguera, Brazil
The Saxon Saviour - New Readings on the Ninth Century’s Biblical Epic, The Heliand

3:45-4:15 Coffee

4:15-6:15 Keynote Seminar 2
Moderator: Ian Wood, University of Leeds, UK
Ralph Mathisen, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, USA
Whatever Happened to the Dark Ages? How the Barbarians Saved Classical Civilization

6:15-6:30 Concluding Remarks by Renan Frighetto and Michael J. Kelly

6:30-7:30 Coffee

Abstracts

Panel 1: Methods of Capital
Moderator: André Szczawlinska Muceniecks, Universidade de São Paulo, Brazil
Tomasso Leso, Università ‘Ca’ Foscari’ Venezia, Italy
Neighborhood, Marriage, and Political Strategies: Franco-Visigothic Royal Marriages in the Sixth Century
This paper is going to focus on the cases of royal intermarriage between the Visigothic and Frankish royal families during the sixth century. The marriages involving members of the royal families of the early medieval kingdoms are, in fact, one of the aspects of the broader issue of neighbourhood in the Early Middle Ages: marriage was a powerful instrument through which personal and collective identities were built, social ties were given shape to, and political strategies were put into practice. This is true at all level of society, but especially at its highest, apical point: marriages involving the royal power were eminently political acts, which were carefully planned by all the parties involved and were loaded with expectations and consequences. The choice of one marriage partner instead of another answered to different needs, offered different possibilities, and implied different strategies for the family and the kingdom; different context prompted different strategies, depending on the contingent political situation and balance of power.
The period (the sixth century) and the area (the Visigothic and Frankish kingdoms) I selected as a case- study presents several interesting features: both kingdoms were, as scholarship has long pointed out, markedly inhomogeneous and subject to divisions and centripetal tendencies; in Francia, the kingdom was divided among members of the Merovingian family in a fluid situation that was never really fixed until the seventh century, and in Visigothic Spain royal power was never firmly into the hand of a single dynasty as the powerful aristocratic factions of the different areas of the kingdoms struggled to take control of the crown. In such a context, marriage alliances (although, as I am going to argue in this paper, labelling these marriages as ‘alliances’ can be highly misleading) were one of the key fields in which the political strategies of the ruling families were put into action.
One of the key advantages of the sixth century marriages involving members of the Visigothic and Frankish ruling families is that they are more often than not recorded by more than one source (mainly, but not only, Gregory of Tours, Venantius Fortunatus and John of Biclaro) a luxury that does not often happens when dealing with early medieval marriages – even royal ones. The information that the different sources chose to register and transmit – and, opposingly, their very significant silences on other events – and the possibility to confront them give us the possibility to better understand the various points of view and interests at stake.
By carefully looking at each of the seven marriages (or unsuccessful marriage proposals) that took place between the early 530s and the first decade of the seventh century, putting them into their specific context, one can try to grasp their meaning(s) and purpose(s) – and, thus, try to shed some light on the broader political issues of the period. Unsuccessful marriage proposal are as interesting as the unions that were achieved, insofar as they show the complex political interactions between neighbouring kingdoms; moreover, it can be shown that royal marriage strategies, besides their role in foreign affairs, had a deep impact on the internal politics of the kingdoms involved – and, often, they were undertaken as a way to deal with internal problems via an external enterprise.

Paulo Pachá, UFF/NIEP-PréK, Brazil
Gift and Conflict: Modes of Domination in the Iberian Early Middle Ages
The concept of the gift was welcomed as a lost son by the medievalists in the last decades and is now a highly popular one. Since the publication of the classical essay by Marcel Mauss – Essai sur le don – in 1924, the concept was developed and approached in several different ways. In the hands of medievalists it was transformed in inspiring and innovative ways, challenging old models and presuppositions: gift-exchange is now a manifold act, a plastic relation and, above all, negotiation. However, amidst all the innovation, one cannot but to notice that a central element in Mauss work is gradually absent: the gift as a mode of domination (not only symbolic but also material), a mean for the creation and strengthening of hierarchies. In a nutshell, we have observed a displacement from the relationships framed by the gift to the language and the symbols involved in these relationships
During the Iberian Early Middle Ages, a context of political fragmentation and local circumscription of the aristocratic powers, one of the main dynamics was the expansion of the aristocratic properties (lay and ecclesiastical) on the expenses of the independent peasantry. This dynamic, we will argue, was related to gift-exchange as a fundamental mode of domination of the peasantry by the aristocracy. Our analysis will focus on how gift-exchange, in this context, created and strengthened a series of relations of personal dependence. Even though the relations of personal dependence were relations present through the whole society, our analysis will demonstrate, precisely because they were expressed by gift-exchange, how they were stronger as relations between peasants and aristocrats than as intra-aristocratic relations.
The main objective of this paper will be the development of an analysis of gift-exchange as a relation rooted in the conflict, highly hierarchical and primarily a form of domination. Gift-exchange is a way not only to create or preserve unequal social positions, but of doing it by means of binding people through relations of personal dependence. This form of domination is distinguished from other early medieval forms because it is a product of the relation of exchange itself, and not one of its effects or conditions.
To achieve these objectives we will analyze the relations expressed by the gift-exchange in a set of hagiographies produced in this historical context (Vitas sanctorum patrum emeretensium, Vita Sancti Fructuosi and Vita Sancti Aemiliani) and in the royal legislation that frames these relations. In this way, this paper aims to be a contribution to a larger analysis about the conflict and the modes of domination in the Iberian Early Middle Ages.




Janira Feliciano Pohlmann, Universidade Federal do Paraná, Brazil
A Family’s Identity in the Excessu fratris I of Ambrose, Bishop of Milan
Despite belonging to a Christian family, when Aurelius Ambrosius was acclaimed bishop of Milan in 374, he was deprived of family nobility and he was a stranger in the town that he had been chosen to lead an important ecclesia.
From one instant to another Ambrose was not anymore a political official, under the leadership of the praetorian prefect Petronius Probus, in the service of the Roman Empire. By acting as consularis and trying to sort the conflicts between Nicenes and Arians, he was acclaimed bishop and he became the principal clerical agent in that distinguished city. In the case of Ambrose, all these new responsibilities and changes in his life were not supported neither in the illustrious past nor in a family that was perceived to be a center that defended the Christian essences of the Nicenes, as martyrdom, baptism and detachable actions towards Christianity. To circumvent the potential problems that these deficiencies could mean in his career, Ambrose elaborated some arguments in two of his works (De virginibus and De exhortatio virginitatis) that linked his family to Soteris, a noble virgin who became a martyr when she needed to face her pursuers.
In the funeral oration, De excessu fratris, proclaimed in the occasion of the Satyrus’ burial, Ambrose’s brother, were abundant the examples of defense of Christian’s faith perpetrated by Ambrose’s family. From a series of rhetorical arguments and some specific actions, Ambrose managed to prepare a speech that placed emphasis on the attitudes of his family about the Christian faith and, furthermore, he established between the Milanese community and his family links of relationships that exceed the blood’s limits. In this work, we observed some of Ambrose’s ways to win a new and big family to lead and a patria to belong to.


Panel 2: Structures of Authority: From Text to Temple
Moderator: Alfonso Hernández, CONICET, Argentina

Jonathan Perl Garrido, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso and Universidad de Santiago de Chile, Chile
The Others’ in the Continuations of Fredegar’s Chronicle: Memory, Historiography and the Legitimation of Carolingian Power in the Mid-Eighth Century
The paper addresses the problem of the representations of alterity, from the analysis of the records on the continuations of Fredegar’s Chronicle. The specific alterity to be studied is the one composed by the peoples of peripheral territories from the north-east of the Frankish kingdom, peoples who even though being part of the Frankish and Christian sphere of influence, were not yet (or not fully) integrated into the political and territorial Frankish unit.
The continuations of Fredegar’s Chronicle are particularly interesting considering the historical context of its production. At that time, the political and cultural Frankish-Christian and Carolingian project required elements of legitimacy, and historiography played a crucial role in that process. The proposed analysis is from the perspective of Frankish ethnogenesis, which will allow us to inquire about the incidence (or not) of the Chronicle in the construction and legitimation of Carolingian power, particularly in terms of the presentation of an alterity (or alterities), which were used in the aforementioned processes, lies in the intention to achieve the identification of the Frankish community under the rule of the Carolingians in addition to Latin Christendom.

Renan Birro, Universidade Federal do Amapá and Universidade de São Paulo, Brazil
The Topography of Power in Medieval Norway: Saint Óláfr and the Halls of Norwegian Kings
In this communication I analyze the image and the location of the shrine of saint Óláfr and their association with Norwegian royal halls in the eleventh century. My sources are the skaldic poetry, Latin chronicles and Icelandic sagas. Óláfr is the royal saint and martyr of Norway, remembered as a protector of local monarchy. He was killed in a civil war with foreign promotion, mainly by Knutr, the Danish king at that time. After his death, some cures and miracles made of Óláfr a saint: his cult spread fast and he was a symbol against the Danish control over Norway. To improve their powers and control over the country, the following kings adopted and promoted the devotion of Óláfr. Thus, they built royal halls in the neighborhood of Óláf’s shrine to share his holiness, legitimacy and power. Every new hall constructed was followed by some deeds to increase the links between the new kings and the beloved royal martyr.

Danilo Medeiros Gazzotti, Universidade Federal do Paraná, Brazil
The Royal Power of the Suebi in the Diocesis Hispaniarum: Some Interpretations about Hydatius’ Chronicle
In our presentation we will deal with the conceptions of royal power among the Suebi in the province of Gallaecia during the fifth century, in the period that we call Late Antiquity. In order to achieve our objective we will use the chronicle of Hydatius, a political and religious character from the Galacian region who was a direct and indirect witness of the events that took place throughout the fifth century. In Hydatius chronicle, the events are related to the daily and social life of the Late Roman World describing its problems and confrontations. One finds many pieces of information about the Christian ecclesia, which go from the nomination of the bishops of Rome in the course of the period his chronicle embraces, to information, for example, about events with bishops of the West and the East. In our work we will discourse about the recognition and legitimization of the Suebi royal authority in the presence of the Roman imperial authority. Finally, we also intend to raise questionings, throughout our research, about the possibility that a Suebi reign has existed in the Diocésis Hispaniarum during the fifth century.





Panel 3: Matters of Eloquence: Writing in the Early Middle Ages
Moderator: N. Kıvılcım Yavuz, University of Leeds, UK

Selene Candian dos Santos, Universidade de São Paulo, Brazil
The Reception and Recasting of Classical Rhetoric in the Early Middle Ages
This paper aims to discuss the reception of classical rhetoric in the Early Middle Ages, focusing on the period between the sixth and the eighth centuries. Several authors wrote about rhetoric in this period, such as Boethius, who, in the sixth century, produced the influential work De topicis differentiis. In this text, the authorities of Cicero and Aristotle are invoked to discuss rhetoric and dialectic and rhetoric is used as a tool to interpret the Scripture, following in the tradition of Augustine’s De doctrina christiana. Still in the sixth century, Cassiodorus, Boethius’s successor as magister officiorum in Ostrogothic Italy, wrote Expositio Psalmorum, in which he not only applies rhetorical theory to hermeneutics, but also recasts the classical genres of oratory (i.e. the deliberative, judicial, and demonstrative genres). In the seventh century, Isidore of Seville composed his Etymologiae, whose second book is dedicated to rhetoric and whose sources, in turn, are Augustine, Boethius, and possibly Cassiodorus. Bede, in the eighth century, in De schematibus et tropis, combines grammatical teaching with rhetorical theory and Christianizes figures and tropes by recognizing the rhetoricity of the Scripture, upholding the tradition of some of the aforementioned authors. In the same spirit, Alcuin wrote, also in the eighth century, Disputatio de rhetorica et de virtutibus, a dialogue in which Alcuin teaches Charlemagne the rules of the art, with a view to contributing to Charlemagne’s education policy.
By referring to these authors and writings, we will advance the arguments that classical rhetoric was not only received but also, to some extent, recast in the Early Middle Ages and that the knowledge of rhetoric was, at the same time, cumulative, since authors oftentimes read one another’s works and quoted each other, and a mosaic, in the sense that different rhetorical theories did not necessarily supersede previous ones, but rather coexisted.

Monah Pereira, Universidade Federal do Paraná, Brazil
King Alfred’s Translation Works: Discussing Authorship and Royal Practice in Anglo-Saxon England
Amidst the debate around the sources often used to study the Alfredian period, are the translation works attributed to the king himself. Throughout the years, scholars have defended different points of view regarding the authorship of such texts. There are those who suggest that the king did write them, or at least a fraction of them. Others, such as M. Godden, question this assertion, pointing to the possibility that none of the texts would have been written by Alfred.
The aim of this paper, on the other hand, is to problematize the importance given to this discussion, suggesting that another interpretation line, already underlined by historians like D. Pratt, could be taken into consideration. The texts produced during Alfred’s reign can be understood as part of a broader context that comprises not only the translations and the educational program by itself, but also a political project, identities and ideas that are being forged in Anglo-Saxon England.
The use of important Christian texts, such as Boecio’s De Consolatione Philosophiae and Augustine’s Soliloquia, conferred legitimacy to the reign of Alfred, establishing a link with the Christian tradition on the continent, strengthening the position of the king as ruler. Moreover, the texts produced in the Alfredian period denote the gradual construction of an identity and unity of the Anglo-Saxons. Regardless of the authorship of the texts, it is noticeable the existence of a single discourse, in which Alfred plays an important part. Therefore, we do not intend to present definite answers but rather put this theoretical approach in focus, discussing its possibilities and limitations.

Rodrigo Rainha, Universidade Estácio de Sá, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Reflections about Public and Private in Medieval Letters: A Case Study of Visigothic Letter-Writing
The considerations presented in this article are based on the analysis of documentation, produced in the period known as the Late Antiquity, in which we propose to reflect on an issue that is certainly not exhausted neither in the field of historiography, nor philology: the public or private in medieval correspondence, giving a historical perspective to understand epistles in the visigoth kingdom.
We understand that faced to Visigoth social-political context in the seventh century, in which bishops were seen wrapped up in political disputes, some prominent members of the episcopate sought to strengthen the precise discourses of the Church’s specific action spaces. Isidore of Seville, for instance, reinforces the master-disciple relationship and education as a way to regulate and indicate positions of the clergy for the society, establishing hierarchies and legitimacy.
This project, like we understand it, had to face, however, the pragmatism of Braulio of Zaragoza and the role played by his disciples recognizing that the proposition had gained recognition and recurrence, and repeated the same formula, affirmation of relation of master and disciple, in their confrontations against rival groups. Eugene and Tajo give continuity to this proposal.          
But, for that to be possible, we must answer a question first: how do we understand the importance of letters in VII century? And, most importantly: is it a particular or a public document?





Panel 4: Hints of the Bible
Moderator: Paulo Duarte, Paulo Duarte, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

Gesner Las Casas Brito Filho, Universidade de São Paulo, Brazil
Word Hoard and Image Hoard: Codicological Notes on Writings Between the Images in MS Junius 11 (Bodleian Library, Oxford)
MS Junius 11 (Bodleian Library, Oxford - called in the past as ‘Caedmon Manuscript’) is an Anglo-Saxon manuscript written in the late tenth or early eleventh century. There are in it four poems: Genesis (divided in Genesis A and B), Exodus, Daniel, and Christ and Satan. All the poems are written in Old English language and they are paraphrases of biblical or apocryphal texts. The Manuscript displays forty-eight completed drawings in the pages of Junius 11, illustrated possibly by two artists, all in beginning, near to the Genesis poem, with forty-six drawings spaces left in blank after. We find thirteen space for drawings in Exodus and thirty-three in Daniel. No space was left for drawings in Christ and Satan.
Scholars have tended to miss the manuscript’s thematic unity because the drawings seldom reflect a literal interpretation of the poetry. Professor Karkov, nevertheless, defends the apparent separation of text and picture as a project of creation for another narrative altogether. In fact, literary and history scholars have widely disregarded the illustrations of medieval literary manuscripts and disregard these illustrations is disregard the manuscript as it was intended to be used in society which has had produced it. Karkov demonstrate this complex relationship essentially by defending that the drawings of Junius 11 represent a ‘translation’ of the text they accompany, acting as a visual gloss or exegesis of the text, not just an illustration (Karkov, 2001). Professor Karkov bases on the ideas about relationships between images and textual according to Meyer Schapiro. These images cannot be seen just as illustration of the poem or the biblical text. The pictures can be product of exegesis of the biblical texts as well the poems are:
Besides the differences between text and picture arising from the conciseness or generality of the word and from the resources peculiar to verbal and visual art there are historical factors to consider: (a) the changes in meaning of the text for successive illustrators, though the words remain the same, and (b) the changes in style of representation, which affect the choice of details and their expressive import. (Schapiro, 1973, p. 13).
There are in the MS Junius 11 almost 46 drawings. We found spread words or phrases in Old English or Latin in at least eight of these pages, sometimes besides, sometimes inside the drawings. They were depicted as our modern ‘explanatory text’ or ‘explanatory legend’ about the pictures or they were instructions made for the artist or artists? The aim of this article is to present this problem and propose some answers or ways to answer these questions. We believe in trying answering theses questions can help understanding how the manuscript were planned and created putting together text and images in the pages of this Anglo-Saxon Manuscript.




Philipp Dörler, Universität Wien, Austria
The Conversus and the Bible. Biblical Allusions in Jordanes’s Works
The sixth-century Gothic scholar Jordanes is well known as the author of a Gothic (De origine actibusque Getarum) as well as a Roman history (De summa temporum vel origine actibusque gentis Romanorum). As such, his dependency on Cassiodorus and other authors is still highly discussed. He is rarely considered as an independent author even though he was a complex character, who was in close contact to the court in Constantinople and spent his last years as a conversus. His entire work is influenced by the biblical-Christian conception of the society he lived in. As yet, however, the role of the Christian influence on Jordanes’ work has (with the exception of O’Donnell) hardly been researched. In my paper, therefore, I will focus on Jordanes’ use of the Bible in his texts; I will investigate how Jordanes as a Christian author was influenced by biblical narrations, biblical ideas and the religious characterisation of the society he lived in in general.

Vinicius Cesar Dreger de Araujo, Unicsul/Anhanguera, Brazil
The Saxon Saviour - New Readings on the Ninth Century’s Biblical Epic, The Heliand
The Heliand (Saviour) is an epic poem in Old Saxon probably written in the mid-ninth century. The poem itself is a Biblical paraphrase that recounts the life of Jesus (in the tradition of the Diatessaron, an harmonisation of the four Gospels created by Tatian in the second century) in the alliterative verse style of a Germanic epic.
The poem was rediscovered and studied in the context of the German nationalist turmoil of the nineteenth century, and the ideologically loaded interpretations of the text prevailed until the end of World War II. However, studies of the text were taken up, mainly by Anglo-American academy, and between the 1980s and 1990s, the main interpretation of the text is given in the debate concerning Germanization of Christianity vs. Christianization of the Germans, after the analysis of Ronald Murphy and James C. Russell. The twenty-first century brought a number of new interpretations and debates about the Heliand, like Dennis Green, James Cathey and Valentine Pakis.
The focus of our presentation is to analyse the major new lines of study, to summarize the connections of the poem with their context of Christianization of Saxony in the ninth century and to point some possible interpretations.